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2005.02.08

日本でのフィッシング元年?

昨年日本語でのフィッシングが行われて、今年はたぶんまとまった被害が出るという意味で日本のフィッシング元年かもしれないなぁと思っていたのですが、どうやら現実味を帯びてきたようでして。
今朝(2/7)、NHKニュースでフィッシング詐欺の話をやってくれています。それなりに被害が認知されてきたということなのかもしれません。一般メディアにこの手の話が出るのはよいことだと思っています。周知が必要なことですから。
ただ、困るのは対処法です。NHKの報道はJPCERT/CCの話として、「セキュリティの設定が甘いとひっかかるからちゃんとしてくれ」なんて趣旨のことを言ってましたが、「セキュリティの設定をちゃんとする」と言われても困っちゃいますよね?マイクロソフトのいう「3つの手順」を守ったからといって完璧とは言えないわけですから。
私自身、講演などでもよく、「フィッシングかどうかを判断するにはどうしたらいいの?」という質問をもらいますが、今のところ特効薬はないとしか答えられないでいます。もちろんURLをちゃんと確認するとか、SSLの場合は証明書を確認するとか、一応の自衛策はありますが、一般ユーザ全員にそんなことを徹底するのは現実には難しいでしょう。何か技術的方策が必要です。
既に知られ、一部で使われているのはアンチウィルスソフトウェアや迷惑メール防止ソフトウェアにフィッシングメールを検出除去させることです。フィッシングの場合、迷惑メールと同様に内容に乱数要素を入れやすいのですが、フィッシングサイトへの誘導URLが必ず必要ですから、既知のものはかなりよい精度で検出できます。あと、アンチウィルスソフトウェアの技術を使えばフィッシングサイトへの参照を横取りして警告を出すこともできるでしょう。
ですが、この手法は当該フィッシングサイトが既知になってからしか有効じゃありませんし、なによりもユーザに負担を求める手法になっているのもどうかと思うのです。ユーザの自衛にばかり期待するのだけではなく、もう少しサーバ側、つまりフィッシングで使われる認証サイトの事業者側も対処してくれないものでしょうか。もちろん認証のやり方を変える(究極は公開鍵暗号を使ったクライアント認証やICカード/USBキーなんでしょうね)という対処もあるでしょうが、それ以外にも今すぐできるものがいくつかあります。たとえば、今の多くのフィッシングサイトはユーザにそれを気づかせないようにするために認証情報を本物のサイトに転送したりしますが、単純な構成をすると、事業者のサーバ側から見ると突然いろんなユーザに対する認証が同じIP(しかも多くの場合通常ありえないような海外)からやってくるように見えるはずですから、アノマリ検出的手法ですぐわかるんじゃないでしょうか。それともそういうことを既にやっているサーバがあるんでしょうか?どなたかご存知でしたら教えてください。
まぁこの手の手法も回避策がすぐ考案されちゃうかもしれませんが(すぐに思いつくものがいくつかあります)、しばらくは有効なんじゃないでしょうか。アノマリ検出手法自体は、各ユーザにうまく使えばフィッシングされてるかもしれないことをまた別の角度から検出できますから(特にクレジットカード会社はスキミング対策のために決済サーバでそういうアノマリ検出をしていると聞きますからノウハウはあるでしょう)、そういう意味でも取り組んでもらえればいいんじゃないかと思うのです。

・・・とかいっていたらこんな報道がありました。
UFJカードの顧客、「フィッシング詐欺」で被害(日経)
しばらく増えそうですね。丸山さんの記事がこの件について詳しいです。ついでに丸山さんの古い記事にちょっとトラックバック。

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Comments

上原先生、コメント&トラックバックありがとうございます。
フィッシングについては、利用者、事業者、ISP、政府、ソフトウェア開発会社それぞれでそれぞれができる対策をする必要がありますね。そのバランスは、やはり利用者より事業者のほうが大きめになるのでしょう。
これは、安全な車社会作りとも似ていて、歩行者、運転者、運送会社、警察、自動車製造業、国土交通省、経済産業省、などそれぞれの中で役割がありますね。

技術的な対策は、できるところから誠実にやっていく。という方針がよいと思っています。

技術的なことはよくわからないので、上原先生のように、フォローしていただけると助かります。

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